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Periodic Table of the Elements
Atomic Number

The periodic table of the elements shows the types of elements that make up the universe and the relative properties of the atoms. In it, the elements are arranged by increasing atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom).

Each of the elements in a group (a column) have qualities in common. For example, group 18 (or 8a) is the inert gases, which do barely interact chemically with other elements because they have no valence electrons. Each of the elements in a period (a row) have the same number of electron shells; the number of electrons in these shells (the element's atomic number) increases from left to right.

The periodic table was invented by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and was later revised by Henry G. J. Moseley.

PeriodGroup
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1A 2A 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 1B 2B 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
1 H
1
He
2
2 Li
3
Be
4
B
5
C
6
N
7
O
8
F
9
Ne
10
3 Na
11
Mg
12
Al
13
Si
14
P
15
S
16
Cl
17
Ar
18
4 K
19
Ca
20
Sc
21
Ti
22
V
23
Cr
24
Mn
25
Fe
26
Co
27
Ni
28
Cu
29
Zn
30
Ga
31
Ge
32
As
33
Se
34
Br
35
Kr
36
5 Rb
37
Sr
38
Y
39
Zr
40
Nb
41
Mo
42
Tc
43
Ru
44
Rh
45
Pd
46
Ag
47
Cd
48
In
49
Sn
50
Sb
51
Te
52
I
53
Xe
54
6 Cs
55
Ba
56
... Hf
72
Ta
73
W
74
Re
75
Os
76
Ir
77
Pt
78
Au
79
Hg
80
Tl
81
Pb
82
Bi
83
Po
84
At
85
Rn
86
7 Fr
87
Ra
88
... Rf
104
Db
105
Sg
106
Bh
107
Hs
108
Mt
109
Uun
110
Uuu
111
Uub
112
Lanthanides La
57
Ce
58
Pr
59
Nd
60
Pm
61
Sm
62
Eu
63
Gd
64
Tb
65
Dy
66
Ho
67
Er
68
Tm
69
Yb
70
Lu
71
Actinides Ac
89
Th
90
Pa
91
U
92
Np
93
Pu
94
Am
95
Cm
96
Bk
97
Cf
98
Es
99
Fm
100
Md
101
No
102
Lr
103


Color Key:
Series Name Property
group 1 or 1a Alkali metals One valence electron
2 or 2a Alkaline-earth metals Two valence electrons
3 or 3b Transition elements
Poor metals
Nonmetals
Metalloids
17 or 7a Halogens Seven valence electrons
18 or 8A Noble (inert) gases No valence electrons
Lanthanide series Rare earths
Actinide series Radioactive rare earths


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