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Rock and Mineral Dictionary
Karat (abbreviated Kt) is a measure of the fineness of gold. 24 karat gold is pure gold. 18 karat gold is 18/24 gold (about 75% gold - three quarters gold). 14 karat gold is 14/24 gold (about 58% gold - a little over half gold). 12 karat gold is exactly half gold. 10 karat gold is 10/24 gold (only about 43.5% gold - less than half gold).
A kilogram (kg) is a unit of mass defined as the weight of one liter of water. One kilogram is equivalent to 1,000 grams or 2.2 pounds.
A knot is a flaw (a mineral inclusion) in a gemstone (usually a diamond) that is ar the surface of a gem after polishing. The know is a small raised bump on the finished gemstone.
The Koh-i-Nur (meaning "Mountain of Light") is one of the largest-known diamonds. It was found in India and belonged to the first Indian Rajahs of Malwa (in the 1300s). The gem made its way to Persia in the 1500s (taken as a spoil of war by the Mogul Sultan Babur). At some point it was returned to Indiabut was taken by the East India Company and presented to Queen Victoria of England in 1850. Tge gem was later cut and set into a brooch and later into the State Crown of the United Kingdom. The Koh-i-Nur is part of the crown jewels of England and is kept in the Tower of London, London, England.
The K-T extinction was the mass extinction that occurred 65 million years ago, at the boundary of the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods.
Kunzite is a transparent pink, light pink, or light purple gemstone that resembles roze quartz. It is a variety of the mineral spodumene. Kunzite can fade after prolonged exposure to light. Kunzite is also called "evening stone," because of its propensity to fade in bright light. The original color of some kunzite stones can be restored or even intensified by irradiation. It is usually used as a large stone and is easily chipped; small stones of kunzite are difficult to cut. Kunzite is often used in pendants. Kunzite has a hardness of 6-7 and a specific gravity of 3.1 - 3.2. Kunzite was first found in 1902 in Pala, California, USA, and is named for the gemologist George F. Kunz. Kunzite's chemical composition is LiAlSi2O6
Kyanite is a deep sapphire blue, green, gray, or white gemstone. The color is not always uniform; it can be blotchy or in streaks. The cystals are crystals are transparent to translucent. Kyanite has a hardness of 4.5 to 6.5; the hardness varies depending on which way it is scratched (this happens because kyanite consists of long, thin crystals). It has a specific gravity of 3.58. Kyanite is found in Brazil, Burma, Kenya, Europe, India, Australia, Kenya, and the USA. Kyanite's chemical composition is Al2SiO5; it is composed of andalusite and sillimanite.
Rock and Mineral Dictionary
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